Document Type


Date of Award



College of Science, Engineering, and Technology (COSET)

Degree Name

MS in Biology

First Advisor

Fawzia Abdel Rahman


Several fungi and bacteria were collected from different surface areas such as exterior of buildings, bark of trees, door hedges, floors, windows, soil and water pipes. The microorganisms were then isolated in pure cultures; light microscope (LM), stereomicroscope (SM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to identify four gram-positive and four gram negative bacteria. Fungi Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus sp., Geotrichium sp, Fusarium sp., Periconia sp., Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma, Penicillium sp., and Botrytis sp., were also identified using the different microscopes. The antifungal activity of the essential oils of selected seeds in the Apiaceae family was evaluated using the diffusion bioassay. The selected oil within the family Apiaceae included seeds of anise (Pimpinella foeniculum), caraway (Carum carvi), carrot (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). 1 2 Oils that are also tested for the antifungal activity but outside the Family Apiaceae included grapefruit (Citrus paradise), anise star (Illicium parviflorum), and yellow mustard (Brassic hirta). Different amounts of each tested oil were used, 0.5111, 1.0111, and 2.0111, oils were applied into small drilled holes in the potato dextrose agar and nutrient agar in each petri dish plate. Each plate was inoculated with one of the tested fungi or bacteria. Every treatment was replicated three times for consistency of results. All plates were incubated for 24-72 hours, 2TC for fungi and 35° for bacteria cultures. Results indicated that some of the tested oils possessed some antimicrobial properties, as it was evident from the inhibition zones surrounding the area where the chemicals were applied. The most effective oil for fungi was grapefruit, which inhibited the growth of seven different fungi with Aspergillus niger having the highest inhibition. The least effective essential oil was celery and anise oil for fungi. Caraway was the most effective essential oil against bacteria, and the least effective was anise against bacteria. The most widely effective essential oil for fungi and bacteria was the grapefruit