Document Type


Date of Award



College of Science, Engineering, and Technology (COSET)

Degree Name

MS in Environmental Toxicology

First Advisor

Professor Mahmoud Saleh


The presence of Environmental xenobiotic chemicals causes free radicals, which are generated during normal metabolism and the body's exposure to foreign compounds. The human body has several mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress by producing antioxidants which are naturally produced or externally supplied through foods and / or supplements. Antioxidants are chemicals that interact with and neutralize free radicals, thus preventing them from causing damage. Antioxidants are also known as 'free radical scavengers'. Examples of dietary antioxidants are Beta-carotene, Lycopene, Vitamins A, C and E and examples of primary antioxidants, which terminate free radical chain reaction include, phenolic compounds and Flavonoids. The objective of the work is to investigate the presence of Natural antioxidants products from extracts of fenugreek seed. The different extraction techniques used were: Microwave Assisted Extraction, Soxhlet Extraction, Supercritical Fluid Extraction, Ultra Sound and Accelerated Solvent Extraction, these different extractions were used to 1 2 compare the yield of fenugreek seed which had the highest percentage yield and which extraction technique is the best. After extraction, the samples were analyzed using the HPTLC (High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography and Gas Chromatography (GC). In GS-MS, the chromatogram will point out the retention times and the mass spectrometer will use the peaks to determine what kind of molecules exist in the mixture. Many traditional foods, especially plant foods are reported to possess biological properties that can be beneficial to human health. An example of this is the Leguminous plant called Fenugreek (Frigonellafoenum graecum), The seeds of fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum graecum) were found to contain some important fatty acids. The ultra sound extraction method was found to be best extraction technique in terms of solvent use and time spent. Due to the low phenolic content observed, this work indicates that fenugreek possess a low radical scavenging and a slow DPPH inhibition. The test done with DPPH and Gallic acid did not show very strong antioxidant activity however, when we saw omega 3 being 58% that explains why fenugreek is a strong antioxidant not due to its radical scavenging activity or its enzyme inhibition but due to its high concentration of omega 3, estragole, carvone and anethole. Omega 3 doesn't scavenge free radical but they are powerful protector for oxidative damage. Fenugreek is also a good source of dietary supplement because of the presence of omega 3 and omega