Document Type


Publication Date



Genetic mutations and aberrant epigenetic alterations are the triggers for carcinogenesis. The emergence of the drugs targeting epigenetic aberrations has provided a better outlook for cancer treatment. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are epigenetic modifiers playing critical roles in numerous key biological functions. Inappropriate expression of HDACs and dysregulation of PI3K signaling pathway are common aberrations observed in human diseases, particularly in cancers. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are a class of epigenetic small-molecular therapeutics exhibiting promising applications in the treatment of hematological and solid malignancies, and in non-neoplastic diseases. Although HDACIs as single agents exhibit synergy by inhibiting HDAC and the PI3K pathway, resistance to HDACIs is frequently encountered due to activation of compensatory survival pathway. Targeted simultaneous inhibition of both HDACs and PI3Ks with their respective inhibitors in combination displayed synergistic therapeutic efficacy and encouraged the development of a single HDAC-PI3K hybrid molecule via polypharmacology strategy. This review provides an overview of HDACs and the evolution of HDACs-based epigenetic therapeutic approaches targeting the PI3K pathway.