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Background: Although regarded as rare in the United States (US), increased global traffic and importation of malaria from endemic countries may lead to a rise in gestational malaria in the US. Methods: This multi-year retrospective study analyzed trends in diagnosed cases of gestational malaria from 2002 to 2017 using joinpoint regression models. We also assessed the association between gestational malaria and selected maternal-fetal adverse outcomes. Results: Mothers diagnosed with gestational malaria tended to be older, and the majority of diagnosed cases (52.9%) were among Non-Hispanic (NH) Blacks. Diagnosed cases of gestational malaria are on the rise in the US. Mothers diagnosed with gestational malaria were 5 times as likely (OR = 5.05, 95% CI: 4.05–6.29) to be anemic as compared to those without malaria. Compared to NH-Whites, NH-Black mothers were twice as likely to experience stillbirth, had nearly 50% greater adjusted odds of severe preeclampsia, and had about 30% elevated likelihood for preterm labor. Conclusions: There is a need to dedicate appropriate resources to identify women that are at risk for gestational malaria in order to prevent related pregnancy complications.