Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq (Mb) has been reported to have cardiovascular modulatory effects. In this study, we evaluated the antihypertensive effects and mechanism of action of Mb on NG-Nitro-l-arginine Methyl Ester (l-NAME) and Deoxycorticosterone Acetate (DOCA) rat models. Aqueous extract of Mb fruit (100 mg/kg) was administered for 6 weeks to rats by gavage and blood pressure was recorded. Effects of the extract on vascular reactivity was evaluated using isolated organ baths, and tissues were collected for biochemical and histological analysis. The systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced with extract (100 mg/kg) administration and treatment compared to the hypertensive models. Mb (100 µg/mL) reduced the vascular contractility induced by phenylephrine (PE), and caused a dose-dependent relaxation of PE-induced contraction of aortic vascular rings. The vasorelaxation properties seemed to be endothelium dependent, as well as nitric oxide (NO) and guanylyl cyclase, but not prostaglandin dependent. Histomicrograph of transverse sections of the ventricles from the Mb group did not show abnormalities. The extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced an l-NAME induced elevation of cardiac output and Creatine Kinase Muscle-Brain (CKMB), but had no significant impact on the activities of arylamine N-acetyltransferase. In conclusion, Mb significantly decreased blood pressure in hypertensive models. The extract possesses the ability to induce endothelium dependent vasodilation, which is dependent on guanylyl cyclase but not prostaglandins.
Nwokocha, Chukwuemeka R.; Gordon, Alexia; Palacios, Javier; Paredes, Adrian; Cifuentes, Fredi; Francis, Sheena; Watson, Je Ann; Delgoda, Rupika; Nwokocha, Magdalene; Alexander-Lindo, Ruby; Thompson, Rory; Minott-Kates, Donna; and Yakubu, Momoh A., "Hypotensive and antihypertensive effects of an aqueous extract from Guinep fruit (Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq) in rats" (2020). Faculty Publications. 49.