Many orally administered phenolic drugs undergo enterohepatic recycling (EHR), presumably mediated by the hepatic phase II enzymes. However, the disposition of extrahepatically generated phase II metabolites is unclear. This paper aims to determine the new roles of liver and intestine in the disposition of oral phenolics. Sixteen representative phenolics were tested using direct portal vein infusion and/or intestinal perfusion. The results showed that certain glucuronides were efficiently recycled by liver. OATP1B1/1B3/2B1 were the responsible uptake transporters. Hepatic uptake is the rate-limiting step in hepatic recycling. Our findings showed that the disposition of many oral phenolics is mediated by intestinal glucuronidation and hepatic recycling. A new disposition mechanism ‘Hepatoenteric Recycling (HER)”, where intestine is the metabolic organ and liver is the recycling organ, was revealed. Further investigations focusing on HER should help interpret how intestinal aliments or co-administered drugs that alter gut enzymes (e.g. UGTs) expression/activities will impact the disposition of phenolics.
Tu, Yifan; Wang, Lu; Rong, Yi; Tam, Vincent; Yin, Taijun; Gao, Song; Singh, Rashim; and Hu, Ming, "Hepatoenteric recycling is a new disposition mechanism for orally administered phenolic drugs and phytochemicals in rats" (2021). Faculty Publications. 39.