In this paper, a deep neural network hidden Markov model (DNN-HMM) is proposed to detect pipeline leakage location. A long pipeline is divided into several sections and the leakage occurs in different section that is defined as different state of hidden Markov model (HMM). The hybrid HMM, i.e., DNN-HMM, consists of a deep neural network (DNN) with multiple layers to exploit the non-linear data. The DNN is initialized by using a deep belief network (DBN). The DBN is a pre-trained model built by stacking top-down restricted Boltzmann machines (RBM) that compute the emission probabilities for theHMMinstead of Gaussian mixture model (GMM). Two comparative studies based on different numbers of states using Gaussian mixture model-hidden Markov model (GMM-HMM) and DNN-HMM are performed. The accuracy of the testing performance between detected state sequence and actual state sequence is measured by micro F1 score. The micro F1 score approaches 0.94 for GMM-HMM method and it is close to 0.95 for DNN-HMM method when the pipeline is divided into three sections. In the experiment that divides the pipeline as five sections, the micro F1 score for GMM-HMM is 0.69, while it approaches 0.96 with DNN-HMM method. The results demonstrate that the DNN-HMM can learn a better model of non-linear data and achieve better performance compared to GMM-HMM method.
Zhang, Mingchi; Chen, Xuemin; and Li, Wei, "A hybrid hidden markov model for pipeline leakage detection" (2021). Faculty Publications. 25.