Effects of vehicle load on emissions of heavy-duty diesel trucks: A study based on real-world data

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Vehicle loads have significant impacts on the emissions of heavy-duty trucks, even in the same traffic conditions. Few studies exist covering the differences in emissions of diesel semi-trailer towing trucks (DSTTTs) with different loads, although these vehicles have a wide load range. In this context, the operating modes and emission rates of DSTTTs were analyzed under varying loads scenarios to understand the effect of vehicle loads on emission factors. First, second-by-second field speed data and emission data of DSTTTs with different loads were collected. Then, the methods for calculating the scaled tractive power (STP) and the emissions model for DSTTTs were proposed to evaluate the effect of different loading scenarios. The STP distributions, emission rate distributions, and emission factor characteristics of different loaded trucks were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that the STP distributions of DSTTTs that under the unloaded state were more narrow than those under fully loaded or overloaded conditions. The emission rates of carbon diox-ide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) for DSTTTs under a fully loaded state were significantly higher than those under an unloaded state. However, due to the influence of exhaust temperature, the emission rates of nitrogen oxides (NOx) among fully loaded trucks were lower than those under the unloaded state when STP bin was above 4 kW/ton. The emission factors of CO2, CO, THC, and NOx for fully loaded trucks demonstrated the largest increases at low-speed intervals (0–30 km/h), which rose by 96.2%, 47.9%, 27.8%, and 65.2%, respectively.