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The trade-off between vehicle emissions and traffic efficiencies were investigated based on field data . First, considering the different operating modes of cruising, acceleration, deceleration, and idling, field data of emissions and GPS are collected to estimate emission rates for heavy-duty and light-duty vehicles. Second, multiobjective signal timing optimization model was established based on a genetic algorithm to minimize delay, stops, and emissions. A case study was performed in Beijing. Nine scenarios were designed considering different weights of emission and traffic efficiency. The results compared with those using Highway Capacity Manual 2010 showed that signal timing optimized by the model proposed can decrease vehicles delay and emissions more significantly. The optimization model can be applied in different cities, which provides supports for eco-signal design and development.