A NOx emission model incorporating temperature for heavy-duty diesel vehicles with urea-SCR systems based on field operating modes

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The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is the most commonly used technique for decreasing the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs). However, the same injection strategy in the SCR system shows significant variations in NOx emissions even at the same operating mode. This kind of heterogeneity poses challenges to the development of emission inventories and to the assessment of emission reductions. Existing studies indicate that these differences are related to the exhaust temperature. In this study, an emission model is established for different source types of HDDVs based on the real-time data of operating modes. Firstly, the initial NOx emission rates (ERs) model is established using the field vehicle emission data. Secondly, a temperature model of the vehicle exhaust based on the vehicle specific power (VSP) and the heat loss coefficient is established by analyzing the influencing factors of the NOx conversion efficiency. Thirdly, the models of NOx emissions and the urea consumption are developed based on the chemical reaction in the SCR system. Finally, the NOx emissions are compared with the real-world emissions and the estimations by the proposed model and the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES). This indicates that the relative error by the proposed method is 12.5% lower than those calculated by MOVES. The characteristics of NOx emissions under different operating modes are analyzed through the proposed model. The results indicate that the NOx conversion rate of heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) is 39.2% higher than that of urban diesel transit buses (UDTBs).