Background: The pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains a medical challenge even in the developed world. Although genetics and epigenetic factors have been variously indicted as major causes of the disorder, development of oxidative stress especially in the formative years of children has equally gained prominence as an etiological basis of the disorder. Oxidative stress is characterized by the production of excessive amounts of free radicals, decreased levels of antioxidants with the attendant imbalance in oxidant/antioxidant ratio. This study was designed to determine the levels of essential metals [magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu)] and toxic metal, lead (Pb), and generation of oxidative stress by their abnormal interaction. Method: Twenty-five children clinically diagnosed for ASD according to DSM-IV-TR and 25 neuro-typical (NT) children (controls), (aged 5.96 ± 1.40 years and 6.18 ± 2.59 years respectively) were recruited for this study. Essential and toxic metals were analyzed using induction-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS); oxidative stress markers [malondialdehyde (MDA), total plasma peroxidase (TPP), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)] were determined using appropriate biochemical methods. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. Results: The levels of TPP and TAC were significantly reduced while MDA was higher in ASD compared to NT. Although OSI was higher in ASD, the difference was not significant. Pb (lead) concentration was significantly increased while Mg, Zn, and Cu levels were reduced significantly in ASD compared to NT. A significant negative correlation between Mg and OSI (r = − 0.438; p = 0.029) was observed in NT. Conclusion: Reduction in Zn and Mg levels with a concurrent increase in Pb in children with ASD in this study may be the basis of inadequate TAC manifesting as increased MDA and reduced TPP levels. The attendant imbalance in oxidant/antioxidant ratio may result in abnormality in neuronal transduction leading to the abnormal cognitive and speech functions characteristic of ASD.
Omotosho, Ishiaq Olayinka; Akinade, Adekunbi Olufunke; Lagunju, Ikeoluwa Abiola; and Yakubu, Momoh A., "Oxidative stress indices in ASD children in Sub-Sahara Africa" (2021). Faculty Publications. 1.