Document Type


Date of Award



College of Education (COE)

Degree Name

Ed.D., Curriculum and Instruction

Committee Chairperson

Ingrid Haynes

Committee Member 1

Delilah Gonzales

Committee Member 2

Holim Song

Committee Member 3

Danita Bailey-Samples

Committee Member 4

Lacey Reynolds


• Disciplinary Alternative Education Programs • in-school suspension • out-of-school suspension • school funding


Exclusionary disciplinary consequences are imposed on students as early as preschool. Students receive punishments such as in-school suspension, out-of-school suspension, and placements in Disciplinary Alternative Education Programs. African American students are most impacted by exclusionary discipline practices isolating them from the environment most conducive to learning. Many negative outcomes are associated with the loss of instructional days including poor academic performance and behavior problems. The purpose of this study is to examine if a relationship exists between teacher, school, and student-related factors on the discretionary placement of African American students in Disciplinary Alternative Education Programs (DAEPs) in Texas P 12 public schools. This quantitative correlational study uses Pearson r correlation coefficient and multiple regression statistical analysis to measure the relationship and degree of predictability of student placement in DAEPs concerning three independent variables: teacher, school, and student-related factors and six sub-variables: ethnicity, gender, enrollment, teacher-to-student ratio, socioeconomic status, and attendance. The study will provide insight into the number of students removed from the traditional instructional setting by way of DAEP placement and an analysis of the demographic factors that may or may not have involvement in those placements. This study seeks to bring awareness to the need for structural reform, equitable purposeful school funding, and professional development diversity training to minimize the time students spend outside of the traditional instructional setting and maximize equitable educational opportunities. Keywords: Disciplinary Alternative Education Programs, in-school suspension, out-of-school suspension, school funding



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