Document Type


Date of Award



College of Science, Engineering, and Technology (COSET)

Degree Name

Ph.D. in Environmental Toxicology

Committee Chairperson

Zivar Yousefipour

Committee Member 1

Erica Cassimere

Committee Member 2

Jason Rosenzweig

Committee Member 3

Rasoul Saneifard


acrolein, compound 20, curcumin, small intestine


Acrolein is an unsaturated aldehyde which produce chemicals used as an intermediate reactive aldehyde in the chemical industry. The primary component of acrolein, is derived from the incomplete combustion of wood, plastic, fossil fuels, the main component of cigarette smoke, the burning of fats and overheating of oil. The purpose of this research is to investigate whether curcumin and compound 20 prevents the induction of inflammatory and oxidative response caused by acrolein in the small intestine. Curcumin is the yellow pigment, lipophilic polyphenol substance that gives turmeric the medicinal properties. It can also define as the primary bioactive substance in turmeric with anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Objectives • Evaluate acrolein effects in the small intestine; Method - Measuring lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activities. • Compare curcumin and compound20 effects in reversing/inhibiting the effects of acrolein in the small intestine. Method - Measuring lipid peroxidation and antioxidative activities. • Determine the mechanism that compound 20 reverse/inhibit the changes caused by acrolein in the small intestine. Method - Cytokines activities and Nrf2 activity and expression. Methodology/Results In vivo, male Sprague–Dawley rats received curcumin or compound 20 mixed in peanut butter via voluntary oral consumption followed by intraperitoneal (IP) administration of acrolein. The levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected by a GSH assay kit, SOD kit and MDA kit respectively. In addition, levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in ileum was detected and showed increased whereas pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (TNF-α) was found to be significantly lower in the ileum of treated animals as compared to the control except for significantly increase with the acrolein treated group. GSH was found to be significantly increased in the treated animals as compared to the control. SOD did not show significant increase except animals treated with compound20 compared to control and significantly in group treated with acrolein compared to control. The MDA lipid peroxidation showed significant increase in animals treated with acrolein compared to the control. In this study, curcumin is shown to be capable of targeting the Nrf2 signaling pathway in protecting the cells against inflammatory and oxidative damage. Conclusion These results suggest that curcumin and compound20 might be a useful agent against small intestine dysfunction caused by acrolein-induced inflammatory and oxidative response.



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