Document Type


Date of Award



Barbara Jordan-Mickey Leland School of Public Affairs (SOPA)

Degree Name

Ph.D. in Administration of Justice

Committee Chairperson

Jasmine Drake

Committee Co-Chairperson

David Baker

Committee Member 1

Danita Bailey-Samples

Committee Member 2

Howard Henderson


disciplinary alternative education program, exclusionary discipline, zero tolerance


National data illustrates that the use of exclusionary discipline practices has resulted in disproportionality and overrepresentation in school discipline. Additionally, research also illustrates that African Americans have been overrepresented in exclusionary discipline at higher rates than their White counterparts. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in the percent of exclusionary discipline practices between African American students and White students based upon school district setting within Texas. The researcher analyzed archival data from 673 students in grades 3-12 enrolled in a Texas public school. The statistical tests used in the analysis of the research questions included Chi-Square and multinomial logistic regression analysis. The findings indicated that there was no significant relationship between student race and exclusionary disciplinary practices. Based on the results, a significant relationship was found to exist between student gender and exclusionary discipline practices. After controlling for gender, the findings revealed that there was no significant relationship between race and occurrences of exclusionary discipline practices of the school district in the study. However, in hypothesis three-part b controlling for race, there was a significant relationship between gender and occurrences of exclusionary discipline practices.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.